If temperature of heating element is measured, it is possible to increase stability of the heating system using two PID smart rules linked together (a.k.a. PID cascade).
Comparison with simple hysteresis regulation:
smooth continuous regulation
Example of using PID cascade in regulation of floor heating, measuring both - under-floor and ambient room temperature.
Zone PID Smart Rule
Floor PID Smart Rule
Thermostat for heating element 0% ... 19 ºC 100% ... 28 ºC
Switch (relay) 15 minute switching period
Optional: By default is set to 10 ºC - 30 ºC. This can be changed in service settings of zone thermostat.
Optional: Floor temperature sensor Max. temperature 28º C
Max. floor temperature allowed by hygienic standards is 28 ºC, however for heating purposes it is possible to use a few degrees higher temperature (e.g. 36 ºC), because temperature sensor is measuring temperature below surface.